XMM-Newton An XXL extragalactic survey: prospects for the XMM next decade
Workshop, 14-16 April 2008, Paris

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Science Cases and Contributions


The XXL Discussion Forum

NB: For clarity each contribution is listed under a single topic, but cross references are indicated below the topic titles.


SURVEY DESIGNS and LSS (CLUSTERS and AGN)
(See also CURRENT AND FUTURE SURVEYS topic)

Unambiguous Determination of the Clustering of High-z X-ray AGN, their Local Environment and Cosmological Constraints
Authors(s) : M. Plionis et al.


Two strategies for future large X-ray surveys of AGN with XMM-Newton
Authors(s) : O. Garcet, V. Borkowski, E. Gosset, P.G. Sprimont, J. Surdej


A low redshift X-ray survey: understanding the co-evolution of AGN and galaxies across cosmic time
It is argued that to understand the rapid evolution of AGN from z~1 to the present day we need to complement deep X-ray surveys targeting the high-z Universe with a nearby (z~0.1) AGN sample that follows the *same* selection function. A 200deg2 XMM survey of 5ks per pointing is well suited for this goal. Such a survey should be carried out in the SDSS to take advantage of the high quality photometric and spectroscopic data already available in that part of the sky. Combined with deep X-ray surveys at high-z the proposed survey will allow us to follow over a wide redshift baseline the evolution of the environment (kpc to Mpc), the stellar population and the stellar mass function of AGN host galaxies selected in the same way at all redshifts, thereby minimising the effect of observational and AGN selection biases in the interpretation. The host galaxy properties above hold important clues on the origin of the rapid decline of the AGN space density since z~1.
Authors(s) : Antonis Georgakakis


A low redshift X-ray survey for normal galaxies
Our understanding of the statistical properties of X-ray selected normal galaxies (e.g. X-ray luminosity function, large scale structure) can be significantly improved by combining a wide-area XMM-Newton survey with the moderare resolution and high S/N optical spectroscopy of the SDSS. Such a combined dataset has the potential to minimise uncertainties that affect existing normal galaxy samples at X-rays, such as small number statistics, cosmic variance, AGN contamination and incompleteness at bright X-ray luminosities. It is demonstrated that a 200deg2 XMM-Newton survey in the SDSS area to the limit fx(0.5-2keV)~5e-15erg/s/cm2 will detect over ~800 of X-ray selected normal galaxies with excellent control over systematic biases, thereby contraining the X-ray luminosity function at z~0.1 with an accuracy of better than 20% over the luminosity range 1e38-1e42.
Authors(s) : Antonis Georgakakis


Optimizing the XXL survey design for cluster cosmological studies
Our goal is to constrain the cosmological parameters (in particular ΩM , σ8 and H) using only clusters of galaxies in a self-sufficient approach. A Fisher analysis for various survey configurations (50 deg2 or 200 deg2, with 40 or 10 ks XMM exposures) allows us to point out the critical trends in the cosmological parameter determination. In particular, we investigate the respective roles of the survey area and of the accuracy of the cluster mass determination. Our analysis shows that (1) the cluster-cluster correlation function provides critical constraints in the self-sufficient analysis and (2) that a 50 deg2 survey with a cluster mass accuracy of 10% provide constraints (δΩM < 10% and δσ8 ~ 5%) comparable to that of a 200 deg2 survey with 50% mass accuracy.
Authors(s) : J.-B. Melin, M. Pierre and F. Pacaud


Cluster survey proposal
Authors(s) : Brera Obs.


CLUSTER SCIENCE
(see also the SURVEY DESIGN topic)


AGN SCIENCE
(see also the SURVEY DESIGN topic)

Multi-wavelength observations of X-ray selected AGN: what we need and why.
We study the spectral energy distributions of X-ray selected AGNs to estimate the depth and sampling of optical and infrared observations necessary to detect them, and to derive accurate photometric redshifts and provide reliable spectral classifications. An overview of fields with existing or upcoming multi-wavelength coverage that satisfies those requirements is presented.
Authors(s) : M. Polletta


The X-ray-Infrared/Submillimetre Connection and the Legacy Era of Cosmology.
We review some recent results on the identification and characterisation of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) obtained by cross correlating X-ray surveys with infrared and submillimetre surveys. We also look toward the scientific gains that could be achieved from an XMM-Newton survey of the medium-deep legacy fields that are being observed at ~1-850um.
Authors(s) : D.M. Alexander


Spatial Clustering of X-ray selected AGNs
We summarize our results of an extended study of the two point spatial correlation function of the Chandra detected AGNs. The study uses spectroscopic redshift data from the CLASXS, SWIRE Lockman Hole (SWIRE-LH), Chandra Deep field North and South (CDFN/S). We confirm that the bias factor of AGNs increase at high redshifts. The typical mass of the halos of the AGN hosts does not show significant evolution up to $z sim 3$. The typical mass of the host galaxy is 2.5x10^{12} solar mass. We discuss some open questions in AGN clustering studies and the opportunities with the XXL survey in consideration. We argue that with the available multi-wavelength data, the Blanco Cosmology Survey field can be an excellent choice for conducting the large area survey.
Authors(s) : Yuxuan Yang Richard F. Mushotzky Amy J. Barger Len L. Cowie Joe J. Mohr


An X-ray Survey of SDSS Stripe 82
We describe the goals of a wide-area X-ray survey covering a large fraction of SDSS Stripe 82 where there exists 40+ epochs of optical photometry to a depth of g~24.5 in addition to a host of other multiwavelength data. The multi-epoch nature of this field is unique in astronomy and provides an ideal basis for complete AGN selection through combined variability and X-ray selection.
Authors(s) : Gordon Richards and others


AGN Radio lobes
Authors(s) : Federico Fraschetti


GALAXY_SCIENCE
(see also the SURVEY DESIGN topic)

A Wide-Area Survey of Normal/Starburst Galaxies with XMM-Newton
X-ray observations of normal/starburst galaxies are potentially biased by being dominated by pointed observations of known, X-ray-bright sources, and the relative luminosities of the soft and hard-band emission (often dominated by hot ISM and X-ray binaries, respectively) as a function of mass and SFR is not well known. A wide-area survey (~ 100 deg^2) down to a flux limit of ~ 1e-15 (0.5-2.0 keV) would result in hundreds of galaxies being detected, and give sufficient statistics to address the X-ray/SFR calibration properly. Optical/NIR coverage to a limiting magnitude of ~ 22 would be sufficient to segregate galaxies from AGN via the X-ray/optical flux ratio and would also allow for stellar mass estimates. Overlap with mid/far IR and/or UV surveys would be provide the obscured and/or unobscured SFR. These multiwavelength fluxes would also allow for color selection of early and late-type galaxy samples to examine the scaling of these soft and hard flux with galaxy type.
Authors(s) : A. Ptak


FOLLOW-UP
(See also reports for the Chandra Bootes Survey in CURRENT ADN FUTURE SURVEY topic)

Associated weak lensing survey with Subaru
Authors(s) : Miyasaki (to come)


An XXL spectroscopic survey
I will present the requirements for a deep redshift survey in areas 30 to 100 deg2, with the constraint to get a high sampling efficiency of X-ray detected AGN to z~4 and cluster of galaxies to z~1.5
Authors(s) : Olivier Le Fevre


Radio galaxies as tracers of the large scale structure
On the basis of surveys in the XMM-LSS regions, we find that radio galaxies residing in massive galaxies do not show signs of infrared excess and are preferentially found in poor cluster environment. Furthermore, radio galaxies with less massive hosts show a hot infrared excess at wavelength as short as 3.6 ┬Ám (observer frame) and they are located in large scale underdensities, while their small 75 kpc scale overdensity is higher. Finally, X-ray selected AGN show an infrared excess in the near infrared and are preferentially found in environment underdense on large scales. These results are interpreted due to AGN being fed through two different types of accretion: hot or cold accretion. Deeper and wider radio surveys in connection with new X-ray surveys will be proposed to make further progress in our understanding of the relation between the joint formation and evolution of the large scale structure and AGN.
Authors(s) : Huub Rottgering, Cyril Tasse


The VISTA Kilo-degree Infrared Galaxy survey (VIKING)
The VIKING survey is one of the six approved Public Surveys which will share the majority of the VISTA time. VIKING is an intermediate-depth survey of 1500 deg^2 of high latitude sky in Z,Y,J,H,Ks bands. Combined with the matching VST-KIDS visible survey, this will provide a 9-band survey approximately 1.4 mags deeper than UKIDSS-Large Area Survey, and 2 mags deeper than Sloan. The selected stripes have low foregrounds, good spectroscopic and other coverage, and are ideally located for followup from Chilean sites.
Authors(s) : Will Sutherland and the VIKING team


Prospects for millimeter and radio surveys of 100 sqdegs
I will give a short overview of prospects for associate survey in the millimeter and radio regime with current and upcoming instruments.
Authors(s) : Schinnerer, Bertoldi, et al.


CURRENT_and_FUTURE_X-RAY_SURVEYS

Galaxy cluster cosmological constraints for the XCS and generic surveys
We present constraints on Omega_m and sigma_8 from the distribution of galaxy clusters for the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) and a set of generic surveys with varying flux limit and area, taking into account realistic temperature and redshift errors as well as mass-observable uncertainties.
Authors(s) : Martin Sahlen, Pedro Viana, Kathy Romer, Andrew Liddle


Bootes Shallow Survey
Using Chandra ACIS-I, a 9 sq. deg. contiguous area of the sky was surveyed with 126 5ks exposures. The survey reached a limiting sensitivity of 4 x 10^-15 ergs/cm^2/s. At a limit of >= 4 detected counts, there are 3293 sources (<22 likely to be false). Also, 42 extended sources were detected. The Bootes area also is covered by the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We found 98% of the >= 4 count sources matched to R<=26 mag objects in the NDWFS data. As part of an optical spectrographic survey in Bootes (AGES), we obtained spectra for ~1500 X-ray AGN (those with optical candidates accessible to the SAO MMT Hectospec, R<21 mag). These spectra were used to classify the X-ray sources as BL-AGN, NL-AGN, Galaxies, etc. Spectroscopic redshifts allow 3-D mapping of the X-ray sources and show that X-ray AGN identify large scale structures that extend to redshifts at z>1. We present details of the survey, source detection, optical follow-up, and large scale structures mapped by the AGN.
Authors(s) : S. Murray, C. Jones, R. Hickox, W. Forman and the XBootes Consortium


Multi-Wavelength Science with the Chandra X-ray Bootes Survey
XBootes is the largest contiguous area covered with Chandra, Spitzer, deep optical imaging, and 20,000 optical galaxy spectra. We present results derived from these ulti-wavelength data sets: 1) Using a SPITZER IRAC AGN color selection, we identify nearly 1500 AGN whose optical-IR color distribution is bimodal and is consistent with absorption in the optical and X-ray bands. The IR selection provides a large sample (more than 600, ~40% of the sample) of moderately obscured sources. 2) At redshifts z<1, the optical spectra show ~250 X-ray selected AGN without prominent high excitation emission lines (XBONGS). The summed X-ray spectrum of the red hosts is markedly harder than the other classes of host galaxies. 3) Analysis of the clustering properties of the X-ray AGN shows that AGN in red host galaxies are more strongly biased than the average galaxy population while blue galaxies are nti-biased. As with the XBONGs, sources in red host galaxies show harder spectra.
Authors(s) : W. Forman, S. Murray, Jones, C., Hickox, R. and the XBootes Consortium


Finding Distant X-ray Clusters in XMM Archive Data - Possibilities and Limitations
The XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) is a new generation serendipitous X-ray survey focused on distant galaxy clusters at z>~1. The survey strategy is based on the selection of extended  469 fields fields have been analyzed and almost 1000 cluster candidates have been identified, 250 of which are distant cluster candidates at z>~0.6. Since the amount of analX-ray sources, their identification as clusters and redshift estimation via two-band imaging, and their final spectroscopic confirmation. For the current project phase, more than 15,Msec of XMM data analyzed X-ray data is comparable to the proposed XXL project, the XDCP survey can serve as a benchmark of what can be done with existing data. Here we provide some material on the XDCP field and source charcteristics.
Authors(s) : R. Fassbender, H. Boehringer, and the XDCP Collaboration


An Alternative to A Contiguous Blank Field Survey for Finding Distant Clusters and AGNs
We report on our search for distant clusters of galaxies based on optical and X-ray follow-up observations of candidates from the SHARC survey. We followed up those possibly extended ROSAT X-ray sources with no bright optical or radio counterparts. We have obtained deep optical images and redshifts for several of these objects and analyzed archive XMM-Newton or Chandra data where applicable. Based on this work, for a new large scale XMM survey we propose to: (a) take all known sources that cannot beruled out being extended. Then reject all those with known optical-IR counterparts found to be visible in the equivalent to 10 min 3.5-3.6 m telescope exposures as point sources (as opposed to groups of galaxies); (b)Produce an observing program for these objects that is deep enough and well enough centered in the XMM field of view to determine the spectrum and angular extent (if a cluster) of all the candidates that are likely to be z > = 0.8 cluster or AGNs/QSOs ~> 4.
Authors(s) : M. P. Ulmer, C Adami, and F. Durret


A coordinated X-ray, SZ and optical survey for galaxy cluster cosmology
In 2007 the South Pole Telescope (SPT), the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), opened a new survey window onto the Universe, aimed at producing the first samples of galaxy clusters via the SZE. To gain an understanding of the SZ-cluster survey selection function, and to obtain global structural parameters of the clusters, there is need of X-ray observations, which still provide the best understood and most established way of surveying for clusters. We have combined the SZ and optical survey efforts with XMM-Newton X-ray data, allowing us to conduct an initial combined X-ray/optical/SZ survey in a 5~deg$^2$ area. We expect to clearly detect at least 50 galaxy clusters, more than 70% of which we estimate will also be detected in the SZ surveys. This number is sufficient for a first calibration and to establish observable scaling relations.
Authors(s) :    G.W. Pratt, H. Boehringer, R. Suhada, J.J. Mohr, J. Calrstrom, R. Kneissl, et al.
Authors(s) : G.W. Pratt, H. Boehringer, R. Suhada, J.J. Mohr, J. Calrstrom, R. Kneissl, et al.


The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey
Pointed observations with XMM-Newton provide a serendipitous survey of around 80 sq.deg. every year. The characteristics and properties of XMM-Newton serendipitous data will be presented with particular reference to the 2XMM Serendipitous X-ray Catalogue released in August 2007. The virtues of possible new large-area surveys will be compared with what is already available from serendipitous coverage
Authors(s) : Mike Watson, University of Leicester


Background Treatment of Large Solid-Angle Contiguous Surveys
Large contiguous surveys make possible a search for structure in the universe. However, the utility of such surveys is very dependent on proper treatment of the instrumental and time varying cosmic backgrounds. This presentation will discuss the various backgrounds experienced by the XMM-Newton EPIC detectors and the various procedures which can be used to eliminate or at least minimize their contaminating effects. The backgrounds considered here are the: 1) instrumental background from penetrating charged particles, 2) fluorescent X-rays which originate within the telescope, 3) soft protons flares, 4) solar wind charge exchange emission, and 5) the Galactic diffuse background which may be the signal of interest or contamination for a study of extragalactic emission.
Authors(s) : S. L. Snowden and K. D. Kuntz


Slew survey
We report on the production of a large area, shallow, sky survey, from XMM-Newton slews. The great collecting area of the mirrors coupled with the high quantum efficiency of the EPIC detectors have made XMM-Newton the most sensitive X-ray observatory flown to date. We use data taken with the EPIC-pn camera during slewing manoeuvres to perform an X-ray survey of the sky. Data from 218 slews have been subdivided into small images and source searched. This has been done in three distinct energy bands; a soft (0.2-2 keV) band, a hard (2-12 keV) band and a total XMM-Newton band (0.2-12 keV). Detected sources, have been quality controlled to remove artifacts and a catalogue has been drawn from the remaining sources. A 'full' catalogue, containing 4710 detections and a 'clean' catalogue containing 2692 sources have been produced, from 14% of the sky. In the hard X-ray band (2-12 keV) 257 sources are detected in the clean catalogue to a flux limit of 4x10^-12 ergs/s/cm2. The flux limit for the soft (0.2-2 keV) band is 6x10^-13 ergs/s/cm2 and for the total (0.2-12 keV) band is 1.2x10^-12 ergs/s/cm2. The source positions are shown to have an uncertainty of 8" (1-sigma confidence).
Authors(s) : B. Altieri


eROSITA
A medium size satellite called "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (Spectrum-RG or SRG) will be launched in 2011 into a 600 km orbit from Baikonur. The payload includes eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array, MPE-led consortium, Germany) with 7 Wolter-type modules, and possibly three other instruments. The mission will conduct the first all-sky survey with an imaging telescope in the 2-12 keV band with the main goal to detect 100 thousand clusters of galaxies and thereafter to do follow-up pointed observations of selected sources, in order to investigate the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. But also the old ABRIXAS goal is maintained, namely to discover the hidden population of several hundred thousand obscured supermassive black holes and the first all-sky imaging X-ray time variability survey.
Authors(s) : P. Predehl on behalf of the eROSITA-team


A path finder for eROSITA survey
Authors(s) : Nico Cappelluti


XMM_OPERATIONS

XMM-Newton: the technical side of very long projects
Based on an explanation of technical constraints of the XMM-Newton spacecraft and its instruments the implications and constraints for very long projects will be discussed. Special attention will bee given to the possibility of new observing modes. (The talk can be adjusted with respect to specific questions which should be addressed to the author in advance.)
Authors(s) : Dr. Norbert Schartel


Web Pages : Alain Detal, Feb 2008.